Site To Site VPN

By | May 1, 2012
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In this post I will explain how to set up a site to site VPN on Cisco routers. First of all we need our network setup like this.

Once we have set up the network we need to assign IP address according to the dirgram.  The next part will be to set up the VPN. This is done is 2 stages for first is Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) and the second is IPSec.

To begin with we need to enable isakmp. This is done in globle configuration mode.

crypto isakmp enable

now we need to define an isakmp policy.

crypto isakmp policy 1

In the ISAKMP we need to define the following things.

1. Authentication type
2. encryption type
3. hash type
4. Diffie-Hellman key strength
5. Tunnel life time.

There are 3 types of encryption that we can use. DES, 3DES and AES. AES is the most secure encryption compared to DES and 3DES. The strongest key you can use is a 256-bit AES key where 3DES uses 128-bit keys. There are 2 types of hash that we can use MD5 and SHA. You can use any hashing as long as it’s the same on both sides. Next we need to select the Diffie-Hellman key strength. This is set in groups. Group 1 has a strength of 768-bits group 2 has a strength of 1024-bits and group 5 has a strength of 1536-bits. So our command would look like the below.

 crypto isakmp policy 1
 authentication pre-share
 hash sha
 encryption aes 128
 group 2
 lifetime 86400

We need to make sure that the Policy matches on both sides or our VPN will not work. Next we need to define our  pre-shared key and set the identity. The identity can be set as in IP address or as a host name. For this example we are using IP address.

 crypto isakmp identity address
 crypto isakmp key 0 VPNKEY address

We need to do the same on the other side but change the address to the address of R1. Now we can move on to the IPSec part. We first need to creat a transform set for the IPSec tunnel. This is the hash and encryption we are going to use. As before we will use AES 128 bit and SHA hashing.

 crypto ipsec transform-set VPNCON esp-aes 128 esp-sha-hmac

Now we can set up the tunnel time. This is the life time for the tunnel before it tears it down and recreates the session.

 crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds 600

We now need to create an access list to match the traffic we went to uses the VPN for.

 ip access-list extended STS-VPN
 permit ip

This access list will now permit the 172.16.10.x network to use the VPN while trying to access the 192.168.1.x network. We now need to create a crypto map that will set our policies all together

 crypto map VPN 100 ipsec-isakmp
 match address STS-VPN
 set peer
 set transform-set VPNCON

Now we have created the crypto map we need to apply it to the out-bound interface.

interface FastEthernet 0/0
crypto map VPN

This config has to match on the other side as well. The difference is in the access-list and the peer address. The access-list has to be mirrored on the other side so then Now when we try to access the 172.16.10.x network from R1and we should be able to get there.

Now lets chek the VPN on R2 using “show crypto ipsec sa”

We can see that we have 117 decrypted packets showing our VPN is working correctley.